Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders, it stops the body system to work properly. The food we eat contains carbohydrate which is broken down into glucose (a type of sugar) in the stomach and digestive system. The glucose from food moves into the bloodstream and provides energy to the body.
When glucose enters the bloodstream the body detects that the blood glucose level is rising in response to that the pancreas (a little gland underneath the stomach) starts to release a hormone called insulin. The insulin allows the glucose to get into the cells and helps our body to get the energy from the food. The bloodstream then takes the glucose and the insulin to every cell in our body and as result, the blood glucose level starts to drop down, this level is topped up by the liver when it releases the stored glucose and the blood glucose rises again. The circle continues and the body functions best when the blood glucose is at the optimum level, however in some people the system doesn’t work properly and they develop diabetes.
The symptoms of diabetes
- Passing urine many times
- Genital itching
- Bacterial diseases and infections
- Feeling thirsty
- Slow healing of wounds
- Blurred vision
- Feeling tired
- Weight loss
Diabetes type 1
In the first type of diabetes, the body does not make any insulin at all. It happens due to an autoimmune response whereby the body destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This type of diabetes is found in the age group of under 40 especially in childhood and it is about 10% of all the cases, however, the science is unable the describe the exact reasons of this type.
Diabetes type 2
Type-2 diabetes accounts for about 90% of all the cases. It’s most common in the over 40 age group in the white population and in the over 25 age group in the South Asian population. Type-2 is a little more complex because of slightly more processes at work, either the body isn’t producing quite enough insulin or the insulin it is producing isn’t working properly. In Obese or overweight people the body fat can stop insulin from doing its job properly, but this type of diabetes can also develop in people of a healthy weight. In type 2 glucose can’t get into the cells because the locks on the cell doors have become furred up with fat deposits. The level of glucose in the blood continues to rise in response to this the pancreas produces even more insulin and as a result, the glucose and insulin goes up to a dangerous level.
The symptoms of type 2 diabetes come along very slowly and some people don’t have any symptoms at all, so for that reason, people can live with type 2 diabetes for up to 10 years before they realize that they have it. The second type can be treated in a number of different ways initially, it may be sufficient to make changes to the food and to take extra physical activity or lose any weight that may be appropriate, however, type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition and most people will need some form of medication for treatment.